Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs
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Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software BLENDER is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs.
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